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Medical device back to top


What it does...
PainSolv influences cell behaviour by inducing electrical changes around and within the cell wall membrane by penetrating body tissue with pre-programmed pulsed electromagnetic wave field therapy delivered through unique software algorithms. The resulting improved blood supply increases oxygen pressure, which activates and regenerates cells.
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How it works...
The PainSolv system encourages your body's self-healing capabilities as pulsed electromagnetic wave field therapy enhances the efficiency of introducing essential chemicals and proteins into the blood stream, simultaneously increasing the oxygen content of your blood to help transport these vital ingredients to combat all manner of physical problems, with a gentle, non-invasive, painless therapy.
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Extra benefits...
Pulsed electromagnetic wave field therapy will also encourage production of natural antioxidants to hamper the process of free radicals proliferation within the body. Free radicals are dangerous and can cause serious damage to your health as they cause almost all major diseases if unchecked.
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How Painsolv works back to top


PainSolv employs pulsed electromagnetic wave field therapy, which influences cell behaviour by inducing electrical changes around and within the cell wall membrane.

Pulsed electromagnetic wave field therapy creates ionic migration of essential chemicals and proteins from cells into the bloodstream, by agitating the cell wall membranes, which subsequently encourages the release of neurochemicals, which occur naturally in the brain, into the bloodstream. These endorphins have powerful analgesic properties as do enkaphalins, an endorphin having opiate qualities, that occurs in the brain,

Pulsed electromagnetic wave field therapy also helps enhance the cell utilisation process in the body which in turn stimulates improved blood circulation, blood oxygen content, cell growth and blood vessel formation.

Pulsed electromagnetic wave field therapy helps stimulate macrophage and pluripotent stem cell activity to prevent infection, accelerate scab formation and wound healing which is a significant part of the healing process.

In bone fractures, affected tissues generate small electric charges which are greater than those of less stressed matter, so that osteoblasts (polarised bone-laying cells) are attracted to these areas and begin to build up extra bone material to counter the stress. Pulsed electromagnetic wave field therapy encourages this process.

With bone injuries, bleeding occurs to form a haematoma in which capillaries quickly form, transporting enriched blood to the injury site. Pulsed electromagnetic wave field therapy causes vasodilatation and capillary dilatation, so helping to speed up the process of bony tissue formation. Macrophages (tissue cells which give protection against infections) will be activated and therefore the immunological system may be strengthened by using PainSolv.

Within the bone itself, the pulsed electromagnetic wave fields delivered causes the induction of small eddy currents in the trace elements, which in turn purify and strengthen the crystal structures which attract bone cells to the area under treatment, which therefore accelerates the bone healing process to allow earlier mobilisation and eventual full bone union.

Ligaments and tendons that are damaged can also be treated using pulsed electromagnetic wave field therapy, as they are uncalcified bone structures in themselves.

The Stress setting of PainSolv has been programmed specifically to encourage stress-related pain reduction and encourage improved sleep patterns.

Application of pulsed electromagnetic wave field therapy in the region of the celiac plexus (more commonly referred to as the solar plexus) can deliver the dual benefit of relieving stress and boosting the immune system as this area of the body is rich in nerves and lymphatic vessels. The celiac plexus itself is a network of ganglia and nerves lying in front of the aorta behind the stomach, supplying the abdominal viscera. Within this area lies a further network of lymphatic vessels, the superior mesenteric lymph nodes, and the celiac lymph nodes.

Pulsed electromagnetic wave field therapy works efficiently in optimising the functions of this central nervous system, particularly by producing changes in calcium transport and mediation of mitogenic response (stimulation of the division of cellular nuclei; certain types of immune cells begin to divide and reproduce rapidly in response to certain stimuli, or mitogens) which can encourage natural killer cell augmentation for fighting viruses and even pre-cancerous cells.

When pulsed electromagnetic wave field therapy is directed towards the general cranial area at the rear of the head, the pineal gland (a small endocrine gland in the centre of the brain) may be encouraged to increase production of seratonin and melatonin, depending on which time of day the therapy is delivered. These are the body's regulators of normal relaxation and sleep patterns.

Pulsed electromagnetic wave field therapy may induce relaxation and reduction of stress levels which in turn can have a positive effect on those suffering from blood pressure problems. Pulsed electromagnetic wave field therapy may reduce the acidity and viscosity of the blood and consequently improve blood circulation and help regulate blood pressure. This means that high blood pressure will become lower and low blood pressure will become higher. This regulation of blood pressure takes place during the first few minutes of each therapy session.

Jet lag can prevent normal sleep patterns but pulsed electromagnetic wave field therapy may help rectify the problem by balancing out the body's system to return it to its normal circadian rhythm (the body clock). When circadian rhythms (in the case of humans, the 24hr physiological process) are affected, as with jet lag, modulated seratonin or melatonin production using pulsed electromagnetic wave field therapy has been shown to normalise cellular processes, encouraging the body clock to revert to its normal pattern.

There are separate settings for Pain, Wound and Stress-related conditions, each designed to deal specifically with the physical causes rather than just symptoms. Each of these areas contains many potential treatment uses. Each of these algorithms differs in duration, intensity and/or frequency.

Constant wave low level lasers and static magnets have never been scientifically proven to penetrate the skin. But clinical research carried out for NASA proved that millisecond duration pulsed electromagnetic fields have the greatest beneficial effect on living tissues over any other energy form.

This is because pulsed electromagnetic waves pass through all types of body tissue including bone, without any refraction. The therapy also works unhindered through clothing and specialist medical dressings, including plaster casts. Studies on extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic wave fields have been shown to be beneficial in improving circulation, important in wound healing and encouraging fracture healing, in addition to the general amelioration of pain associated with a wide range of conditions. These lower frequencies are also encourage relaxation and encourage transport (ionic migration) of essential chemicals and proteins to damaged tissue. The cell ionisation process is further enhanced by the presence of essential fatty acids, amino acids, enzymes and oxygen in the bloodstream.

Application of this therapy is based on more than 30 years of worldwide research carried out by renowned scientists. In addition there are many years of practical experience by thousands of physicians, based on many scientific studies on the degree of effectiveness of Pulsed Electromagnetic Wave Field Therapy.

PainSolv does not contain magnets and is not magnetic therapy. Neither does the modality block pain signals to the brain as TENS machines or pain medications, which both only deliver temporary pain relief. TENS machines produce an electrical charge which permeates your skin and may eventually block the pain signals going to your brain. However, when TENS pads are removed from the skin, the pain can quickly return and even get worse in many instances. Over time, body tissues can develop resistance to TENS output requiring the settings to be increased, which in itself can cause even more discomfort than the original problem in some cases.

Your questions back to top

What is PainSolv?

PainSolv is a brand new portable health management medical device, delivering pulsed field electromagnetic therapy that can be used with equal effect by consumers and practitioners alike.

What is different about PainSolv?

PainSolv is unique in that it features three distinctly different treatment options for relief from pain associated with a wide range of Pain, Wound and Stress Conditions. As it is not clinically efficacious to have a single-setting for all types of treatment that may be required, PainSolv have researched and developed unique software algorithms for specific areas of therapy. Each of these programmed algorithms differs in duration, intensity and/or frequency.

How does PainSolv compare to TENS and other more well known treatments?

Unlike TENS, TSE and pain medications, PainSolv doesn't block pain gateways (that transmit pain signals to the brain). PainSolv is a drug-free alternative to pain, wound and stress-related pain management with no side effects and the unit is hand held and easily portable.

How does PainSolv work on the body?

PainSolv pulsed electromagnetic field therapy works by delivering pulse-modulated bi-phasic wave forms into the body tissues of sufferers, penetrating tissue at a cellular level, helping to normalise cell membrane potential. It is clinically proven that the pulse modulated non-ionising, non-thermal electromagnetic fields in the ELF (extremely low frequency) range produced by pulsed electromagnetic field therapy can have vigorous biological effects that may be beneficial for symtpoms of a wide range of conditions.

How does PainSolv compare to magnet therapy?

Constant wave low level lasers and static magnets have never been proven to penetrate the skin. Clinical research carried out for NASA proved that millisecond-duration pulsed electromagnetic fields have the greatest beneficial effect on living tissues over any other energy form. PainSolv does not contain magnets of any kind.

Is PainSolv therapy easy to apply?

PainSolv can be used either by applying direct to the skin or through clothing and even medical dressings - even plaster casts. PainSolv penetrates up to 10cm through all types of body tissue without any refraction of the wave forms. Electromagnetic waves are the only energy that is not affected by water, of which the human body contains large amounts.

Does PainSolv cause any side effects?

No, but the device should be used with caution if the sufferer is pregnant, if the user suffers from epilepsy (and is not taking prescribed medication to control it) or has an implanted cardiac pacemaker.

Does PainSolv therapy cause any pain during application?

Not at all. However, if the device is being used to help promote natural healing of leg ulcers for instance, it is possible that the sufferer could feel some tingling sensations due to improved circulation. As the healing process begins after application, it is quite normal for the pain experienced to increase slightly for a day or so. Using PainSolv will not cause any mid to long term discomfort.

Should I consult my doctor before using PainSolv?

You only need consult your doctor before using PainSolv if you are in the first trimester of pregnancy, have a cardiac implant or suffer from epilepsy. The User Guide provided with the product gives information about certain conditions that should be diagnosed before use of the device.

Is PainSolv safe to use on any part of the body?

You should never use the device internally as this could cause severe injury or even death. You should never allow children to use the device without supervision. You should not apply therapy directly onto the eyes. You should not apply the unit directly onto the carotid artery which is situated below the ear and behind the jaw on the neck. As PainSolv does not generate heat, it is entirely safe to use on joints where prosthetic joint replacements have been inserted.

What types of condition can PainSolv therapies treat?

PainSolv can be used on a wide range of pain, wound and stress related conditions to great effect. Full details can be found in the User Guide.

How often can PainSolv be used without 'overdosing' on the therapy?

You can use PainSolv as many times as you like in any one session. The device is programmed to deliver Pain, Wound or Stress therapies in pre-programmed cycles. We recommend that you do not apply the therapy whilst driving!

Are there any particular precautions I should take when using the PainSolv Medical Device?

Whilst we are confident that PainSolv will help you gain relief from your particular condition, it is important that you read the instructions prior to use, paying particular attention to the list of precautions below:

  • Do not use internally as this may cause serious damage to your health.
  • Must not be used by those being treated with chemotherapy for at least 5 months afterwards
  • Must not be used by people with demand-type heart pacemaker implants
  • Must not be used in the first trimester (3 months) of pregnancy, or if there is any chance you may be pregnant
  • Must not be used by haemophiliacs
  • Must not be used by epilepsy sufferers unless they are taking prescribed medication to control the condition
  • Must no be used in conjunction with defibrillators
  • Do not apply directly to eyes or eyelids
  • To avoid cross-infection, never apply directly to broken skin of any kind (ulcers, wounds, etc)
  • Do not apply directly to the carotid artery (upper part of neck directly behind the ears)
Are there any general usage guidelines I should be aware of? Yes, there are some general pointers for safe use which are listed below:
  • Children should not use the device unless supervised by an adult
  • Do not drive for at least 15 minutes after a therapy session
  • Do not operate machinery for at least 15 minutes after a therapy session
  • Do not leave the unit adjacent to sources of excessive heat
  • Do not operate in the immediate vicinity of flammable gases
  • Do not use on aeroplanes until the crew advise that electronic equipment can be used safely
  • Do not immerse in liquid of any kind
  • Do not use cleansing lotions on the device; use wet wipes or dry cloth only
  • Avoid dropping the unit onto hard surfaces wherever possible
  • Attempting to open the unit may result in serious injury
  • Avoid dropping the unit onto hard surfaces
  • Do not use any other charger other than the one supplied
What do I do if I am not sure about any of the above guidelines?

If you are in any doubt about any of the medical precautions listed and how they may apply to you, please call 0116 270 3443 or email for immediate advice.

Does PainSolv have exactly the same results for everyone using the device?

Medical conditions affect individuals differently. Treatment periods can vary from user to user and can also depend on how long you have suffered from your condition. We therefore advise you to follow the Conditions Application Guidelines in the supplied Instruction Manual for best results. The 'Conditions Applications Guidelines' are provided for users to understand their conditions more fully and the most appropriate way to use the PainSolv device, which is not intended to either diagnose or cure any specific condition and no such claims are made. If you have specific medical concerns, please consult your health care provider. No individual is the same and results may vary from person to person. The treatment suggestions provided are not intended to suggest that a condition will be cured, only that symptoms may be reduced.

Testimonials back to top

What existing users say about their experience with PainSolv:

"Please find our cheque for another pot of your excellent Accelerator Balm! PS: The PainSolv machine is quite wonderful! Thank you."
Mr N Golton, Yorkshire

"I purchased some weeks ago, a PainSolv cell function device and to be perfectly frank, this cell function, though not able to remove pain completely, has been most beneficial. I am using the device to relieve the excruciating pain generated by any movement to the hernia, as the pain killer Dihydrocodeine has had little effect in reducing pain."
Robert Stalker, Cornwall

"I bought PainSolv for my frozen shoulder and am very pleased with the results. My wife also suffers from a bad knee and was amazed how how well it worked on her, more so as she is always really sceptical with things like this."
Mr Penn, Warwick

"I just got back to my home office and used my Painsolv machine. No more wrist support required, almost back to full movement with manageable pain levels after just two applications. Brilliant! Thanks!"
Liz Foxwell-Canning, Leicester

"I have been using the PainSolv unit for diabetic neuropathy to great effect and also using it on my partner who has arthritis and the results have been very good for her also. Thanks for the help."
Mr Rossell, London

"The device is possibly the best I have ever had for my 50-year old shoulder injury. There was consistently less pain after using PainSolv. My wife had lower back pain and I persuaded her to let me use the device on her. She had polio when she was a baby and, as a result, has a walking impairment. She is registered disabled and has a blue badge. To my surprise, when I applied the device to her back, she couldn't feel any pulse at all, neither long nor short. (I think this must be something to do with the polio.) Interestingly, though, she was more or less free of pain after the session. I would add that she is a very sceptical person. She was able to feel the pulse from the device when I applied it to her hand afterwards."
David Quint, London

"I've had a TENS machine, magnetic straps and a magnetic collar, all of which were thrown into the bin! I really can't believe that PainSolv has helped me so much in the time I've been using it - it is just fantastic!"
Mrs Joan Jenkins, Essex

"...thank you so much for your kindness and efficiency. I shall certainly send anyone who asks me to you!"
Jean Stalker, Helston, Cornwall

"I bought PainSolv for my wife who suffers from arthritis and it has been effective in improving her symptoms for which I am most grateful. Thank you so much for your quick and efficient service. Your company has earned lots of brownie points for the way you deal with customers."
Mr D Saxby, Huntingdon

"I am 73 years old and have suffered with arthritis in my knees for the past 4 years. I bought a Painsolv unit and after using it for less than a week I was amazed that I can now, for the first time in 4 years, walk down the 9 steps at my golf club without pain in my knees and without holding onto the hand rail. I am overjoyed with this product and I would thoroughly recommend it."
Mr Eden, Birmingham

"I have recently purchased a Painsolv device and I am very pleased with the results as it has enabled me to come off my medication which I had been on for several years to treat my Spinal Stenosis and Arthritis. However I would like to find out if I could take out an extended warranty on it as I would hate to be without it now."
Ms Christina Harrison, Kent

"I wished to obtain the PainSolv to help me with a sports injury I sustained and I am pleased to report that is has helped me enormously."
Ms Judith A Davis, Manchester

"I suffer from a frozen shoulder and when I injured myself moving barrels in my busy restaurant business four weeks ago, the pain gradually got so bad that I couldn't even brush my own hair. I was unable to lift my hand above waist level, the pain was so bad. I remembered reading about the PainSolv in the Sunday Express and decided to try it out. It was the best decision I could have made because within 6 days, I was able to move my arm so that I could even wrap my hand around the back of my head without any real discomfort. I am so impressed that I just had to write and tell you - I would definitely recommend anyone who suffers long-term pain to try this very impressive medical device."
Tony Reavey, Restaurateur, Carriage House, Higham Ferrers, Northamptonshire

"I am so pleased I bought the PainSolv from you! Well worth the effort on your part - I am eternally grateful and thoroughly endorse everything you said...words cannot describe what PainSolv has done for my arthritis...and your customer service manager is a lovely lady too!"
Sandra Brinded, Norwich, Norfolk

"I have suffered the results of life as a Prima Ballerina and the physical toll the profession takes on the feet. My problems are severe pain under and over the arch of the foot in addition to calcification on top of my left foot, which has got progressively worse since I retired from performance. I must express my unbridled delight, for after using the PainSolv for just a few treatments my pain has most certainly decreased already which is most gratifying..."
Bryony Brind, Prima Ballerina, Hertfordshire

"I just wanted to let you know that I received my PainSolv and I am delighted! I have had 3 previous bouts of what my GP thinks is cellulites on my nose and had to have anti-biotics twice. It was starting again so I used it on my nose twice that day and by night time the redness and puffiness had gone. My husband was amazed! He then woke one morning with a red, hot patch on his ankle (sore and itchy) and voila, after one application it had gone! Brilliant!"
Roberta MacMillan MCMA, Chief Administrator, Complementary Medical Association, Hawick, Scotland

"I use the PainSolv medical device to treat all sorts of pain conditions for myself and my family with tremendous results. I also regularly use another PainSolv product, PainSolv Celadrin Accelerator Balm for aching muscles and joints. Before playing 5 a side football I use it to warm and protect my muscles. All in all, I am most impressed with PainSolv and would happily recommend it to anyone."
Mr Roberts, Leicestershire

"I have suffered from fibromyalgia and migraines for several years and I am so pleased to have found PainSolv products. The relief you have brought me is very much appreciated. Please accept my heartiest thanks."
Mrs Y Boyd, Housewife, Co Derry, Northern Ireland

"Over a year ago, I was struck down with sciatica and was unable to play golf for many months. As well as being made worse by doctors prescribing me painkillers which had so many side-effects it wasn't worth the trouble, I had to wait for over 20 weeks for physiotherapy, which only made matters worse. I was quite depressed about the whole episode when I discovered PainSolv through the recommendation of my cousin, who swears by it. I have tried several other devices to help relieve my pain but PainSolv is far and away better than all of them put together in my view."
Mr Alan Baylis, Pensioner, Leicestershire

"I have suffered with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome for many years and have had an operation on my right hand. The problem has now become worse on my left hand and a friend suggested I should try PainSolv, which I did. Within a few days the pain had eased considerably and I am very hopeful now that I will not require further surgery as the difference PainSolv has made is dramatic."
Carol Talbot, Northampton

"I suffered painful burns to my lips and mouth due to battery acid ingestion and was amazed how PainSolv quickly reduced the discomfort and swelling. I have also had great relief when I used it on numerous other painful muscular injuries "
Mrs Penni Robson, Leicestershire

"I have been suffering for several months from an inflamed hip joint as the result of a gardening accident, which has caused me to suffer referred pain in the lower back and also in my right knee. I have used PainSolv Celadrin Accelerator Balm regularly now for several weeks and it gives me relief within 5 minutes of applying it. I have also applied the balm to my hip prior to using the PainSolv device and the results are dramatic for me. I would recommend these amazing products to anyone who is tired of the debilitating effect of constant pain."
Mrs Susan Hamilton, Sunderland, Tyne & Wear

"I do a lot of running and have recently competed in The Great North Run. Inevitably my training schedule has resulted in several minor injuries for various reasons, all of which inevitably include pain. I have used the PainSolv product very successfully on a number of pain conditions including knee pain and ankle pain."
Ms A Setterfield, Hartlepool, Cleveland

"I tripped on the stairs and badly twisted my ankle, damaging ligaments and tendons in the process. I could not drive for a month and had to walk with the aid of crutches. My doctor told me it would take up to a year to heal properly. I used PainSolv and found it to be excellent in helping to relieve my pain and it helped me to gain full 'pain free' mobility much sooner than he anticipated."
Mrs Shirley Foster, Southend on Sea, Essex

"My whole family has benefited from using PainSolv and it is now an essential part of our luggage! Our 11yr old son has suffered knee pain due to Osgood- Schlattes disease (growing pains) and the device helped him almost instantly! As a fitness instructor, I often suffer from aches and pains and tried it out on a recurring calf injury and was delighted with the results. Then my husband tried it on his dull lower back pain which he had suffered for many years and the relief was dramatic"
Sarah Bragg, Fitness Instructor, Leicestershire

"Since suffering two strokes on the same side of my body some years ago, I have suffered with consistent and debilitating lower back pain, which I am told is as a result of how I hold my body to cope with my mobility issues. I was lucky enough to be treated with the PainSolv device last week and I cannot wait to get my own, as I have been able to rise from seats without pain for the first time in years. This is quite clearly a major breakthrough in self-care which I applaud."
Ian McCorquodale, Publisher, Hatfield

"I have a condition called Polymyalgic Rheumatica which is linked to Osteoarthritis which I have suffered for many years. It all got worse when I moved back to the UK (I had lived aborad for over 35 years). The pain was fairly constant and affected several parts of my body. When I was given the PainSolv to try I did not think for one minute it would help with my problems, which affected me worse in my hands and fingers, preventing me from doing the baking, cooking and art I so enjoyed, but I am amazed to say it has changed my life for the better. I would heartily recommend it to anyone with any type of chronic pain condition."
Mrs I E Horey, Pensioner, Geddington, Northamptonshire

"I have been suffering from a recalcitrant leg ulcer for over two months which was about 4mm deep and a diameter of almost 20mm, which has been very uncomfortable and inconvenient. Progress using compression bandages and creams from the surgery was frustratingly slow. But then four weeks ago I tried PainSolv on the wound and I am so pleased that I no longer have to wear a compression bandage because the ulcer has healed! This would not have healed so speedily without the daily use of PainSolv."
Bernd Linke, Northamptonshire

"Need to share this with you. Our nine year old cat Shilo came home in a dreadful state yesterday afternoon - could not put his front left paw down, and it was visibly twice the size the leg should have been. I left him to sleep all afternoon, and before we went to bed last night, I took our unit up to him, and used it up and down his leg 8 times in a row on Pain mode. He was RUNNING away from our kitten this morning. There is no swelling and no limp - i was going to take him to the vet this morning with for the consultation would have been £30, then any medication on top. This could save me hundreds of pounds!!"
Mrs S Archer, Kettering

Scientific Research back to top

Pulsed Field Electromagnetic Therapy Research Studies from around the World

There are many scientific studies on the effectiveness of Pulsed Electromagnetic Wave Field Therapy and all PainSolv research and development has been based on published academic and clinical research studies and trials.

It was discovered many years ago that disturbances in blood circulation and in metabolism play a key role in the development of diseases.

It is also well known that the human body relies on a healthy cell network to avoid poor circulation, declining performance, premature ageing and degenerative diseases.

Normal cell functioning accelerates the removal of toxic chemicals and waste, which empowers the body to recover its self-healing capabilities.

Application of pulsed electromagnetic wave field energy is based on more than 30 years of worldwide research carried out by renowned scientists. In addition there are many years of practical experience by thousands of physicians.

Glossary back to top

Pain conditions explained in plain English

Pain that is triggered by (resulting from) a non-noxious stimulus (e.g. brushing your hair, a light touch of the skin)

Anaesthesia Dolorosa
A complication of surgery involving nerves (neurosurgery) which is thought to be incurable. This type of condition can also occur naturally through some external trauma and a common example is trigeminal neuralgia, a devastatingly acute and recurring pain in the facial nervous system.

Breakthrough Pain
Thought by some specialists to be the result of medication becoming ineffective, which in turn causes pre-existing pain to worsen. This type of pain can last for many hours unless treated by changing drugs or by trying new pain management methods.

A type of pain resulting from the natural phenomenon of the nerve healing process, which usually presents as a burning sensation. Ironically, the skin of the sufferer can be quite cool and moist, sometimes accompanied by intermittent swelling.

A condition of altered perception in that stimuli which would normally cause minor pain actually causes severe pain.

Most commonly a component of a neuropathic pain.

Can sometimes occur through over-stimulation of nervous system components which when prolonged, can result in acute bursts of severe pain.

Usually an element of a neuropathic pain condition.

Idiopathic Pain
A condition for which there is no discernable cause which can last for several months then disappear.

Malignant pain
Complex pain which is directly linked to cancer which is usually experienced in the body tissue surrounding the site of the tumour. Can also be suffered as a result of treatment (chemotherapy or radiotherapy) as well as by the disease itself.

More commonly referred to as 'pins and needles, this is a tingling or pricking sensation. A mild form is when a limb 'goes to sleep' through sitting on it or holding it in a restricted position which restricts blood flow.

Transient Paresthesia
Parasthesia caused by pressure on a particular nerve, most commonly in the body extremeties such as fingers and toes. Easily relieved by removing the pressure.

Chronic Paresthesia
Same symptoms as parasthesia but usually an indicator of more serious problems such as long term nerve damage.

Phantom Limb Pain
This is the strange and confusing sensations suffered by amputees after their operation. This is generally because nerve endings and nerves themselves can be traumatised by the initial injury which sends false signals up the spinal cord to the brain.

Psychogenic pain
A persistent and debilitating type of pain due to a psychological reason with no physical evidence to support it. However, in most cases, a physical cause will be discovered.

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy
This pain complex is a chronic pain which presents because there is a malfunction in the central or peripheral nervous systems. The type of pain suffered with this condition is sharp and burning. This pain can also be exacerbated by body movement.

Pain definitions back to top

There are two main types of pain that sufferers experience. In addition to traditional pain definitions, it is also important to recognise that all pain can be further exacerbated by mental anguish which is known as psychogenic pain.


Nociceptive Pain
This is suffered as a result of either injury to tissues or general wear and tear. Nociceptive pain is commonly referred to as a quite severe continuous pain that increases in rhythm with the pulse (a throbbing sensation).

Neuropathic Pain
The root cause of this type of pain is not known in a large proportion of subjects and it can occur through a cocktail of injuries, conditions and diseases.

Neuropathic pain is suffered through some form of nerve damage and is triggered by other conditions or diseases, including diabetes, osteoarthritis or shingles.

This type of pain creates sensations similar to heavy or overbearing pain that cause the sufferer to feel overheated. When the pain is actually in a nerve directly, some numbness can also occur.

The nervous system is the information highway that transmits pain signals to the brain from various parts of the body.

Nociceptive and Neuropathic Pain combinations
There are many conditions where a sufferer will experience both types of pain as there are a combination of causes that result in this unfortunate occurrence.

Other specific pain definitions include:

Cutaneous pain
Pain which is caused by some form of trauma to the outer shield of the body - and its largest organ - the skin. This type of pain is very acute at the time of injury and can be reflected by a large number of incidents such as stings, cuts, bruises, abrasions, burns and scalds.

Somatic pain
This type of pain results from injuries or disease to bones and synovial tissue such as cartilage, ligaments, tendons and bones. Where there is an injury such as a bone fracture or muscular torsion such as a sprained muscle group, this will also result in somatic pain. This type of pain is more persistent and debilitating for the sufferer.

Visceral pain
This is pain that emanates from internal body cavities and components such as organs, including the kidneys, liver, pancreas, lungs and even lymph nodes, which can present as a referred pain in another dependent part of the body. This type of pain is also very wearing as whilst it is not acute, it is long lasting.

For other pain type explanations please refer to the Glossary on this site.